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Better performance with Java arrays in Clojure

Published: 2021-06-14


I was working on re-implementing the Stochastic gradient descent algorithm in Clojure based on the blog post How to Implement Linear Regression From Scratch in Python. Because I wasn’t happy about the performance when the dataset is in the order of thousands rows of thousands features, so I started looking into ways to go lower-level to use the Java arrays and found this amazing article on Clojure Goes Fast: Java arrays and unchecked math. (It’s a great article that goes into details of Clojure type-hinting and other tips. Highly recommended!)

Following the instructions in the Clojure Goes Fast article, I’m quite amazed by the performance boost. Below is a comparison of the same predict function: one expects Clojure vector and the other Java arrays. The only thing novel thing that didn’t cover in the Clojure Goes Fast article is the usage of areduce. Instead of the explicit loop-recur shown in the article, I stumbled upon this handy clojure.core/areduce form and used it to better convey the implementation of the predict function.

The results are quite promising.

(require '[criterium.core :as c])

(defn predict-v [xs [bias & coefs]]
  (reduce + bias (map * xs coefs)))

(defn predict-a [^doubles xs ^doubles coefs]
  (areduce xs idx ret (aget coefs 0)
           (+ ret (* (aget xs idx) (aget coefs (inc idx))))))

(let [xs      (range 5000)
      coefs   (range 5001)
      xs-v    (into [] xs)
      coefs-v (into [] coefs)
      xs-a    (into-array Double/TYPE xs)
      coefs-a (into-array Double/TYPE coefs)]
  (c/quick-bench (predict-v xs-v coefs-v))
  (c/quick-bench (predict-a xs-a coefs-a)))

The *out*:

Evaluation count : 834 in 6 samples of 139 calls.
             Execution time mean : 736.026481 µs
    Execution time std-deviation : 26.489882 µs
   Execution time lower quantile : 715.074957 µs ( 2.5%)
   Execution time upper quantile : 777.624246 µs (97.5%)
                   Overhead used : 6.224349 ns
Evaluation count : 106956 in 6 samples of 17826 calls.
             Execution time mean : 5.865484 µs
    Execution time std-deviation : 221.419267 ns
   Execution time lower quantile : 5.580842 µs ( 2.5%)
   Execution time upper quantile : 6.125437 µs (97.5%)
                   Overhead used : 6.224349 ns

It’s about 736 µs versus 5.87 µs. That’s about a 125X speedup by using Java array.

It’s really nice that I don’t have to sacrifice the functional programming constructs (like map[^1] and reduce) because I’m working on a different data structure. Under the hood, areduce is a macro that does the loop-recur for you. Here’s the source code of clojure.core/areduce:

(defmacro areduce
  "Reduces an expression across an array a, using an index named idx,
  and return value named ret, initialized to init, setting ret to the
  evaluation of expr at each step, returning ret."
  {:added "1.0"}
  [a idx ret init expr]
  `(let [a# ~a l# (alength a#)]
     (loop  [~idx 0 ~ret ~init]
       (if (< ~idx l#)
         (recur (unchecked-inc-int ~idx) ~expr)

Using this macro has an advantage over using the loop-recur: you don’t need to explicitly call the unchecked-inc-int to get the full benefit of speeding up looping on the array a.

Reference Links


[^1] Besides the clojure.core/areduce shown in this article, there’s also the clojure.core/amap.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.