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Clojure nil busting one-liners

Published: 2021-03-10



To remove all nils from a seq:

(remove nil? xs)

To transform a seq and remove nils from its result:

(keep a-transform xs)

To replace all nils with a fallback value from a seq:

(map (fnil identity a-fallback) xs)


nil is a value in Clojure that represents “the absence of a value”. Working with nils is quite common in Clojure. Most of the core library functions deal with nils elegantly, and very consistent. Overtime, it’s quite easy to develop the intuitions that tell you how nils will flow through the functions. However, in some cases, which I’ll explain in the later sections below, I do need to take some actions to deal with nils. Fortunately, we are in a great position with all the tools in the clojure.core library.

Most of the time, just do nothing

In most cases, we simply don’t need to do anything since so many core functions work with nils already:

(:k nil) ;; => nil
(:k {}) ;; => nil
({:k :v} nil) ;; => nil
(#{:a :b} nil) ;; => nil
('symbol nil) ;; => nil
(conj nil :a) ;; => (:a)
(assoc nil :k :v) ;; => {:k :v}
(str nil) ;; => ""
(-> nil :k1 :k2 :k3) ;; => nil
(map :k nil) ;; => ()
(filter pos? nil) ;; => ()

Because of this behavior, functions using the seq abstraction (map, filter, reduce, etc.) works out of the box even when the seq contains nil:

(map #{:a :b} [:a nil :b nil :c])
;; => (:a nil :b nil nil)

(filter keyword? [:a nil :b nil :c])
;; => (:a :b :c)

However, when functions do give up on nils, we need other strategies.

Early termination

When piping a value through a series of transformations, if one transformation turns the value into nil, the rest of the transformations might fail. For example:

(-> x
    transform-1  ; yields nil
    transform-2) ; throws NPE

In this case we can simply swap the threading macros -> and ->> with their early-termination variants: some-> and some->>.

(some-> x
        transform-1  ; return nil
        transform-2) ; execution never reach this step

However, this only works if the step yields nil. What if we get something like this:

(->> xs
     (map transform-1)  ; yield a list containing some nils
     (map transform-2)) ; throws NPE on (transform-2 nil)

(some->> xs
         (map transform-1)  ; yield a list containing some nils
         (map transform-2)) ; throws NPE on (transform-2 nil)

In this case, we’ll need to bust those nils from the seq.

Remove nils

When there’s no need to preserve those nils, simply remove them from the seq.

(remove nil? [:a nil :b nil :c])
;; => (:a :b :c)

Furthermore, map + remove is equivalent to keep when we want to remove the nils from a series of transformations:

(->> xs
     (map transform-1)
     (remove nil?)
     (map transform-2)
     (remove nil?))

(->> xs
     (keep transform-1)
     (keep transform-2))

Replace nils

In some case, we do want to preserve the nils (perhaps because we need the correct count of the seq, or the nils are something meaningful later down the pipe.)

My first thought was using the or form to replace each nil with a fallback value. However, creating a partial function doesn’t work because:

  1. partial cannot take macros like or as arguments, and
  2. the order of the arguments doesn’t work out for us, i.e. (partial or a-fallback) is not what we want.

To make or work, we need to create a function: #(or % a-fallback). However, creating an anonymous function seems an overkill to me. I prefer function compositions whenever possible, especially for a conceptually simple functions like this. Here’s solution I came up with using fnil:

(->> xs
     (map transform-1)
     ;; replaces nils with a-fallback
     (map (fnil identity a-fallback))
     (map transform-2))

;; This might help the readability

(defn self-or [other]
  (fnil identity other))

(->> xs
     (map transform-1)
     (map (self-or a-fallback))
     (map transform-2))


I never did find any real use case for fnil until this tweet. This whole article is actually just an excuse for sharing the usage of fnil shown in the last code snippet, which I’m pretty excited about! I did find another cool usage of fnil soon after. I’ll write more about fnil and other cool thing you can do with higher-order function in the future. Thanks for reading!

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